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Frank Bernheisel: The View From Here
Frank Bernheisel
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Frank Bernheisel
Posted 01.02.16
Just Outside Washington

FRANK BERNHEISEL

Tolerance Resolution Needed

The New Year's resolution is a tradition in our democracy. Given some of the events and words spoken in 2015, I think a resolution for 2016, based on Tolerance, might be appropriate. (Tolerance is one of the 13 principles of democracy as noted in my piece of December 21.) To frame my New Year's resolution concerning tolerance, I thought some guidance from our Founders would help me.

The Treaty of Tripoli (Treaty of Peace and Friendship between the United States of America and the Bey and Subjects of Tripoli of Barbary) was concluded between the United States and Tripolitania, signed at Tripoli on November 4, 1796. It was signed a second time at Algiers, for a third-party witness, on January 3, 1797. It was submitted to the Senate by President John Adams, receiving ratification unanimously from the U.S. Senate on June 7, 1797, and signed by Adams, taking effect as the law of the land on June 10, 1797. A clause in Article 11 of the treaty states:

As the Government of the United States of America is not, in any sense, founded on the Christian religion, -- as it has in itself no character of enmity against the laws, religion, or tranquility, of Mussulmen [Muslims], -- and as the said States never entered into any war or act of hostility against any Mahometan [Mohammedan] nation, it is declared by the parties that no pretext arising from religious opinions shall ever produce an interruption of the harmony existing between the two countries.

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